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How do humans impact on the environment influence the evolution of microorganisms (e.g., emerging diseases and the selection of antibiotic resistance)?

Topic

Evolution

Framing Question

How do humans impact on the environment influence the evolution of microorganisms (e.g., emerging diseases and the selection of antibiotic resistance)?

Learning Objectives

  • Define the term nosocomial infection.
  • Define the term emergent disease.
  • Distinguish between the terms endemic, epidemic, and pandemic.
  • Describe two human practices (in medicine and agriculture) that have led to the increase of antibiotic resistance (e.g., antibiotics in feed, stopping antibiotic therapy too soon, repeated use of the same antibiotic).
  • Describe two human practices that have led to the development of dead zones in bays or oceans.
  • Give an example of a disease that has emerged due to human activities, and state what those human activities were (e.g., AIDS, Ebola virus, bird flu, Lyme disease, etc.).
  • Explain how public health policies (e.g., quarantine and vaccination) can alter epidemic/pandemic progression.
  • Explain how not completing a full treatment of antibiotics can lead to an increase in resistance in a bacterial population.

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