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How did cells, organelles (e.g., mitochondria and chloroplasts), and all major metabolic pathways evolve from early prokaryotic cells?

Topic

Evolution

Framing Question

How did cells, organelles (e.g., mitochondria and chloroplasts), and all major metabolic pathways evolve from early prokaryotic cells?

Learning Objectives

  • Define endosymbiotic theory with respect to mitochondria and chloroplasts.
  • Explain why glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarboxylic (Krebs) cycle are so highly conserved in living cells (e.g., 12 essential precursors and energy).
  • State at least two characteristics that all living cells share (e.g., membrane, DNA, and metabolism).
  • Describe the evidence that supports the theory that mitochondria evolved from bacteria.
  • Describe the evidence that supports the theory that chloroplasts evolved from cyanobacteria.

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