Energy is required and transformed in biological systems
How is energy of chemical processes coupled in metabolic pathways?
- Discuss the concept of Gibbs free energy and how to apply it to chemical transformations
- Explain how endergonic and exergonic pathways can be coupled and how this applies to metabolism.
- Calculate the overall ΔG for a coupled reaction given the ΔG values for the component reactions.
- Explain the simplifying assumptions made in biochemistry that are consistent with physiological conditions and make "biochemical standard conditions" (steady state) different from the standard conditions (equilibrium conditions) normally referred to in chemistry.
- Predict how perturbing a system affects the actual free energy (both mathematically and conceptually).
- Explain evolutionary conservation of key metabolic pathways.
- Explain differences in energy use and production in different cells and different biological systems.
- Explain the role of gene duplication in the evolution of energy production and utilization by different organisms.